*BRT-Brazilian Time Zone - UTC - 3
Friday, 30th July Monday, 2nd August Tuesday, 3rd August
PIECES OF ART AS ACTIVITIES OF LOVE AND FREEDOM   14:00 - 16:00 14:00 - 16:00 1

The workshops are pre-conference activities that take place the day before ISCAR Conference opens.
The workshops will take place on August 3rd, in the morning and afternoon shifts and have independent registration from the main Conference. If you want to participate, you must register by selecting the workshop at "Register and Pay"

All workshos will happen at the same time in different locations! Thus, participants can only register for and participate in one of the workshops:




CHACDOC 2020: Crisis in children’s development


CHACDOC 2021 Workshop: Crisis – care and play in children’s development
The symposium is designed as a space for theoretical dialogue and development of concepts and empirical material. In the cultural-historical perspective, crisis is a central part of development as it arises when emerging new forms of social relations and ways of participation meet the existing ones and challenge the child’s ways of thinking and acting. The purpose of the symposium is to explore and elaborate our understanding of the concept of crisis through discussions related to central activities (play) and relationships (care) in childhood.

The purpose of this section is to create a forum for researchers who are interested in developmental psychology and childhood, with a special focus on using activity theory and the cultural-historical research approach as a way to unite these two opposing approaches to the study of children. Developmental psychology has often been characterised historically as the study of ‘the general child’, with a focus on developing a model that can be used to evaluate individual children and their changing relation to society as they grow up. Childhood studies have focused on the study of children anchored in historical time and settings; such approaches are more commonly found within anthropological and sociological traditions, especially those that focus on situated and localised practice with children. Cultural-historical approaches seek to unite the general principles in relation to historical time and place.


Friday July 30
Brazil time European time Australian time    
8.00am -8.10 1pm-1.10 9.00-9.10 pm Welcome Louise Bøttcher (Moderator)
8.10-8.40 am 1.10-1.40 pm 9.10-9.40 pm The dialectical-materialist nature of the concept of crisis in cultural-historical psychology and some implications for pedagogical practice juliana
Juliana C. Pasqualini
8.40-9.05 am 1.40-2.05 pm 9-40-10.05 pm Discussion  
9.05-9.35 am 2.05-2.35 pm 10.05-10.35 pm Why crisis is necessary in a theory of child development seth
Seth Chaiklin
9.35-10.00 am 2.35-3.00 pm 10.35-11.00 pm Discussion  
10.00-10.15 am 3.00-3.15 pm 11.00-11.15 pm Development of children’s attentive listening in daily play in childhood education: an analysis of higher psychic functions. Aline Patricia Campos
10.15-11.30 am 3.15-3.30 11.15-11.30 pm Discussion  
      Break for a new day  
Monday August 2
Brazil time European time Australian time   Mariane Hedegaard (Moderator)
8.00-8.30 am. 1.00-1.30 pm 9.00-9.30 pm Studying PlayWorlds as a contradiction between reality and imagination: How dramatic and emotionally charged play acts as a source of children’s development marilyn
Marilyn Fleer
    9.30-10.00 pm Discussion  
    10.00-10.15 pm Common play spaces to improve the transition from pre-school to primary school Anne Clerc-Georgy et al.
    10.15-10.30 pm Discussion  
      Break for a new day  
Tuesday August 3
Brazil time European time Australian time    
8.00-8.30 am 1.00-1.30 pm 9.00-9.30 pm Care and Caring well for children from a wholeness approach – the case of ECEC Ditte Winther-Lindqvist
    9.30-10.00 pm Discussion  
    10.00-10.15 pm From a dynamic assessment perspective, how do teachers support their pupils during their transition from Kindergarten to primary school? Gabriel Kappeler et al.
    10.15-10.30 pm Discussion  
    10.30-11.00 General summing up and future plans mariane
Mariane Hedegaard

Contact details:



Why crisis is necessary in a theory of child development?

Seth Chaiklin, Denmark

The purpose of this conceptual presentation is to explain the meaning of crisis as a theoretical concept within a cultural-historical theory of child development, rather than an everyday term. The starting point is to explain the idea of age periods, which provides an important link between material conditions and psychological development. Crisis appears in the transition from one age period to another, reflecting contradictions or inadequacies between psychological development in relation to cultural demands and conditions. The transition from one age period to another can be understood as an example of dialectical transformation – where some psychological capabilities are dropped, new capabilities are developed, and some existing capabilities may get a new role in the overall psychological configuration.
Crisis appears especially during these transformations. Main points to communicate in conclusion are: (a) crisis refers to the consequences of a psychological transformation from one age period to another, (b) crisis arises necessarily from misalignment among a person’s psychological capabilities and intentions in relation to material conditions, and (c) despite the everyday meaning of the word crisis, the visible manifestations of a developmental crisis do not have to be dramatic or disruptive. Implications of this theoretical conception for theories of pedagogical and parental practices are introduced.


The dialectical-materialist nature of the concept of crisis in cultural-historical psychology and some implications for pedagogical pratice

Juliana C. Pasqualini, Brazil

While traditional psychological theories consider crisis as a sign that something is not going as expected, cultural-historical psychology states that the concept of developmental crisis is essential for age periods’ internal logic. In this presentation we will argue that this assertion is based on a dialectical-materialist approach to human development, highlighting the logical categories of contradiction and aufheben as underlying Vygotskian theorization regarding the transition to new age periods. We will claim the necessity of grasping the dialectical and materialist nature of the concept of crisis in cultural-historical formulations and explore some of its implications for pedagogical practice, focusing on the transition from infancy to pre-school age to illustrate general principles for pedagogical action in critical periods.


Care and Caring Well for children from a wholeness approach – the case of ECEC

Ditte Winther-Lindqvist, Aarhus University, Denmark

This paper aims at developing a new cultural-historical wholeness approach for the central topic of care and caring well in the institutional context of ECEC. Care is a fundamental precondition for well-being and development and the communication of care is the first central activity in infancy initiated by the caretaker. In this paper I draw on moral philosophy and the concept of moral imagination in combination with cultural-historical wholeness approach to children’s needs and development in order to formulate what care and caring well is for young children. I suggest to make a distinction between two main forms of caring corresponding to two different forms of moral imagination in caring well for children in ECEC: 1) Responsive caring, is the kind of care where the educators attend to children’s needs for well-being in the here and now. In responsive caring moral imagination plays a role mainly in the shape of empathetic imagination. 2) Proactive caring is a strategic kind of caring for children where the educators attend to the child’s motives, engagements and projects, collaborating with the child on transforming and expanding his/her participation possibilities in relationships and activities. This requires a future-oriented gaze at the child, and thus a different kind of moral imagination, based on extended anticipatory goals.


Studying PlayWorlds as a contradiction between reality and imagination: How dramatic and emotionally charged play acts as a source of children’s development

Marilyn Fleer, Monash University, Australia

In play there is always a relationship between the fiction of the play plot and actions of the players who draw on the rules and roles in society (Vygotsky, 1966). Play is therefore constantly in motion as a contradiction between reality and imagination. In this session, the outcomes of a study that examined the contradiction between reality and imagination through undertaking an educational Experiment (Hedegaard, 2008) are presented. The study determined if and how, STEM PlayWorlds (modified playworld originally developed by Lindqvist, 1995) created developmental conditions for preschool children. In following children and their teachers from two preschools who participated in the educational experiment of The adventures of Alice in Wonderland PlayWorld (story by Carroll, L. (2009), it was found that the PlayWorld created unique psychological conditions. The children were emotionally engaged and living through paradoxical situations they encountered. Some contradictions were resolved through a form of magical metamorphosis (drink me potion and then shrinking) and others were discussed morally (I would think before I act and go down the rabbit hole). It seemed that play created an emotional tension through the contradiction between children’s reality (don’t fit inside a rabbit hole) and the imaginary situation of the PlayWorld (shrinking to fit). A form of affective imagination (Zaporozhets, 2003) in play created motivating conditions for resolving these contradictions. The outcomes of this study show the significance of affective imagination in children’s play.


Common play spaces to improve the transition from pre-school to primary school

Anne Clerc-Georgy, Béatrice Maire Sardi, & Linda Amrar, University of Teacher Education, State of Vaud /Lausanne, Switzerland

In Switzerland, children attend Kindergarten between the ages of 4 and 6 and the first two years of primary school between 6 and 8. The changes of class, environment, teacher, functioning or working arrangements comes at a delicate time, as children are still in transition between learning according to their own program and learning following the school curriculum (Clerc-Georgy, 2018; Vygotsky, 1935/1995). Moreover, it is their first transition and they are not always sufficiently equipped to make this transition without help (Clerc-Georgy & Kappeler, 2017). In addition, children of this age are often involved in learning processes that take a lot of time, such as reading or number construction. However, the many changes they have to grasp generate many misunderstandings and sometimes major regressions in their learning. The primary teachers who welcome them find it difficult to identify their achievements and resources because the children can hardly make them visible because they do not grasp the expectations of this new context.
Considering play as a leading activity for children of this age (Fleer, 2010) and with the aim of improving this transition and fostering better continuity between kindergarten and elementary school, we have set up pairs of teachers who offer pupils periods in which they

play together about once a week. This way of working has the triple advantage of: 1) encouraging the development of young children's play, who benefit from the stimulation of older children, 2) enabling young students to get to know the class and the teacher who will welcome them into primary school, and 3) allowing the primary teacher to observe her future pupils in play situations in which they often make their resources and achievements visible (Vygotsky, 1933/2016).
In an attempt to access the children's perspective (Pramling Samuelson & Pramling, 2009), we conducted interviews during the year with kindergarten and primary pupils about common play moments, as well as interviews with pupils who had just entered primary school about how they experienced this transition. In this presentation, we will present the results of the analyses of these interviews and propose an ongoing research project on this subject.


From a dynamic assessment perspective. How do teachers support their pupils during their transition from Kindergarten to primary school?

Gabriel Kappeler and Daniel Martin, University of Teacher Education, State of Vaud/Lausanne, Switzerland
Isabelle Turffer Moreau, University of Teacher Education, State of Valais/St-Maurice, Switzerland

In the context of French-speaking Switzerland, the Kindergarten and the first two years of primary school form a single 4-year cycle. However, pupils are required to change teachers and classes after 2 years. The challenge of the transition from Kindergarten to primary school is not a new phenomenon, but this inevitable rupture must be supported (Clerc-Georgy & Kappeler, 2017). These first 4 years of schooling are particularly important, because the child enters kindergarten following its own program and will gently learn to follow the school's program (Vygotsky, 1935/1995). During this transition, the child changes social and academic context to integrate another context that is unfamiliar to him or her. The new demands will generate crises in the dynamics of child development, as there will be a change in social situation through new activities in school life, new social relationships and new material conditions (Hedegaard, 2009) when he or her joins the new classroom.

In this particular context and with the aim of harmonising teaching and learning practices during this transition period, continuous training has been proposed in the form of a lesson study (Murata, 2011) in one school. Over more than a year, three teams of Kindergarten teachers, primary school teachers and university trainers met in four full lesson study sessions. Thus, during this training research, 12 lesson-observation preparations and 10 debriefings after classroom observations were filmed.

This presentation aims to present how teachers in a dynamic assessment perspective identify the changes that cause crises in their pupils’ developmental process and to understand how they support them in this particular situation of transition from Kindergarten to primary school.


Development of children’s attentive listening in daily play in childhood education: an analysis of higher psychic functions.

Aline Patricia Campos & Joana de Jesus de Andrade, Instituição- Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Rib. Preto (USP)

This study seeks to investigate the development of higher psychic functions, during childhood, through the analysis of the children’s narratives by observing the moments in which the role play in the daily life of institutions is constituted. The general objective of this research is to analyze the children's narratives in play in children's daily life and how this play is constituted in Early Childhood Education institutions. The research is based on historical-cultural psychology, which addresses a broad study on the appropriation of higher psychic functions The elementary psychic functions are instinctual functions, and are related to the child’s biological constitutions, such as: involuntary attention and instinctive memory. Higher psychic functions are acquired functions, they involve the process of mastering the external means of cultural development and thought, such as: oral language, language by drawing, written language and calculus. It is a qualitative research, which have used the following methodology: individual interviews, group conversations with children, photographs from children’s perspective and participant observation. With this study, the intension is to expand the theoretical discussion about the moment where role play is constituted and to focus on children's opinion about play.


Sociocultural approaches to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Education – STEM

The aims of the ISCAR special section in STEM education are to:

  • Facilitate communication between people interested in STEM Education;
  • Develop understanding of scientific concepts within a sociocultural framework;
  • Support professional development of educators and researchers;
  • Cooperate with academics, researchers, teachers and professionals worldwide, who have contributed to a review of research in the area of STEM Education;
  • Communicate with each other to exchange ideas and methods about the development of scientific skills, understandings and competences;
  • Create a forum to enrich science education policies with a strong sociocultural perspective.
  • Create groups within the ISCAR community to offer symposia and workshops at conferences ensuring a sustainable co-operation.
  • Develop an individual/collective identity among members of the ISCAR community interested in STEM Education.

Formal/informal STEM

We hope to make STEM Education a way of human development in order to act for peace, sustainable development and public understanding. Relevant studies may cover a wide range of topics and situations: both inside educational institutions (from the early childhood till university, including in- service training for actors of education), and in all societal “informal” settings where learning, culture and social interactions occur (for example museums, science centres, environmental parks, families, kindergarten).


DAY 1 - Monday 2nd August - 9:30 to 12:45 AM
9.00 Welcome Katerina Plakitsi and Sylvie Barma
9.15 STEM Education, Humanities and Social Sciences: A new framework Katerina Plakitsi, Eleni Kolokouri, Athina-Christina Kornelaki
9.45 Discussion  
10.15 Coffee break  
10.30 Expansive resolution of conflicts of motives and boundary crossing activity by science teachers Sylvie Barma and Samantha Voyer
11.00 Discussion  
11.15 An analysis of expansive learning in math teachers engaged in a professional development program Anne Lessard and Katerine Fortin
11.45 Discussion  
12.00 STEM: reflections on roots and branches. Cristiano Mattos and Juliano Camillo
12.30 - 12:45 Discussion  
12.45 Lunch  
DAY 2 - Tuesday 3rd August - 9:00 to 12:45 AM
9.00 Commentaries Yrjö Engeström and Annalisa Sannino
9.30 Discussion  
10.00 Poster and coffees  
10.30 Poster presentations on Expanding STEM (open shared problem)
4 questions – What is aim of your research? What is the method/concepts used? What is the result? What impact can/do the results have?

Discussants: Katerina Plakitsi, Sylvie Barma, Fernanda Liberali, Adolfo Tanzi, Manolis Dafermos, Christiano Mattos
Posters presenters will display their posters and the discussants will ask the 4 key questions. A general discussion will be held at the conclusion of the presentation.
12.00-12.30 Close  
plakitsi Katerina Plakitsi
kolokouri Eleni Kolokouri
kornelaki Athina-Christina Kornelaki
barma Sylvie Barma
romero Margarida Romero
lessard Anne Lessard
mattos Cristiano Mattos
camillo Juliano Camillo
engestrom Yrjö Engeström
sannino Annalisa Sannino
Fernanda Liberali, Adolfo Tanzi, Manolis Dafermos Manolis Dafermos, Adolfo Tanzi and Fernanda Liberali

For those wishing to present a poster, you will need to register your interest by sending to Katerina Plakitsi and Sylvie Barma an abstract of 250 words of your poster.

Contact details:


The havenless world is a daily stage of terrible misfortunes which only aggravate social problems and human miseries. Resisting and expanding (SPINOZA, 2009) is central to face them and go on as human beings. In order to persevere in the odyssey of human existence, freedom is another paramount Spinozian concept when he says that "if men were born free, they would, so long as they remained free, form no conception of good and evil" (SPINOZA, 1985). To Freire, as ‘the naming of the world, which an action of creation and recreation, is not possible if it not infused with love’ (1972, p. 62), education can be a remedy for social inequality, poverty, racism, religion intolerance, loathe of all kinds, amongst other social injustices, once it is a love activity. When permeated by affection and love, education can provide opportunities for the development of practices of freedom and humanization (FREIRE, 1987). Hannah Arendt (1972) corroborates with this view, based on the conception of amor mundi, which has to do with the admiration and love for past human activities. For the philosopher, such work should be “preserved” for the generations to come. Therefore, she argues that teachers have to inspire students for the love of the world so as to spread freedom. Based on the Declaration of Human Rights, Wyatt & Reitov (2019) discuss that the right to freedom of expression is a universal right. Along with that, Nazzal (2018) asservates that art is a form of expressing freedom. Within the theoretical and philosophical concepts of the Brazilian Digitmed project (LIBERALI, 2019) and inspired by Shaheed’s quote (2013) that “artistic expression connects us all, transcending borders and barriers”, this workshop proposes performative activities of love and freedom, heartened by pieces of art, as an attempt to spark participants to reflect upon new possibilities to overcome social injustices.


The workshop proposes performative activities of love and freedom, heartened by pieces of art, as an attempt to spark participants to reflect upon new possibilities to overcome social injustices. Attendees will be invited to immerse in social injustice and human miseries present in our society today through performative practices to, then, emerge from them while reflecting on the role of art in interpretating and recreating the world we live in. Engaged in social transformation, participants will come up with imaginative and inventive pieces of Art to overcome the issues they embodied to create possibilities of shared love and freedom.

Monday, August 2, from 2pm to 4pm, and Tuesday, August 3, from 2pm to 4 pm (BRT-Brazilian Time Zone - UTC – 3)

photo Francisco Estefogo (Cultura Inglesa Taubaté/UNITAU)

photo Maria Cristina Meaney (PUCSP/LAEL)

photo Maria Feliciana da Silva Amaral (PUCSP/LAEL)


Workshop Leaders: Lois Holzman, Dan Friedman, Carrie Lobman

Vygotsky’s search for method as “prerequisite and product, the tool and the result of the study” is the inspiration for social therapeutics, the tool-and-result methodology developed by Newman and Holzman. Social therapeutics is a 40+ year-old methodology for reinitiating the development of persons and communities through activating their capacity to play, perform, philosophize, and in that process, create new ways to be, see, and relate. It is also social activism that takes the activity of ongoing social-emotional- cultural-intellectual development to be necessary for world-changing. In other words, to paraphrase Marx, the changing of the world and of ourselves is one and the same task.

This workshop will experientially immerse participants into ensemble- and environment- creating activities in which they can experience the dialectic of practicing method and the simultaneity of tool and result. Three facilitators will lead participants in specific exercises that synthesize play, performance and philosophizing as effective ways to reconstruct-deconstruct assumptions about what it is to be human. These exercises are the hallmark of transdisciplinary performatory, improvisational pedagogy, as being developed globally across the life span of educational settings, from K-12 to universities and community-based schools. Participants will experience and gain tools in the practicality, power and fun of building ensembles that support the dialectic learning/development.

photo Lois Holzman

photo Carrie Lobman

photo Dan Friedman

Tuesday, August 3, from 1pm to 5 pm (BRT-Brazilian Time Zone - UTC – 3)